SOILS OF THE VALLEY OF THE UPPER RIVER BASIN OF WESTERN BUG.
The Western Bug river is one of the few rivers in Europe, which has preserved the natural meandering course on the whole its length. The basis of the minor changes in the structure of the environment, the floodplain soils of the Western Bug river preserved extremely valuable natural properties, which requires to provide the different measures for their protection. The Upper Basin of Western Bug River is based in Voroniaky – as a part of Gologoro-Kremenetske Mountain Hills, and in the structure of the river valley the floodplain with height of 0.5-2 meters above the water level is selected. The largest areas covered by dernovi and peat-bog soils, slightly less areas covered by meadow soils and lowland peats. The alluvial mineral soils of the floodplain part of the Upper Basin of the Western Bug river is characterized by undifferentiated type of soil profile and divided by follow horizons: humus-accumulative (H), the upper transition (Hp), the lower transition (Ph). The alluvial organogenic floodplain soils of Western Bug river within Voroniak allocated the different peat horizons based on decomposition level (T1, T2, T3). The results of investigation of the physical properties of the soil profiles show the profile bedding by granulometric content, the high structure composition of soil, reducing the composition density and porosity of aeration down the profile. The correlation of soil alkalinity of the Upper Basin of the Western Bug river with gleying process in these soils has been established. The genesis of soil calcareous has been investigated. In order to preserve the peat soils of the floodplain of the Western Bug river again possible human impacts the conservation of the lands covered by peats was proposed. It is necessary to implement new, environmentally adjusted approaches to environmental management in the wetlands: fitoagrochemical cultivation of virgin soil, carrying out the independent environmental assessments of the land management projects in the floodplains, the establishment of regional landscape and hydrological reserves and protection areas, national parks with further conversion of landusers and landowners.
Keywords: alluvial soils, floodplain, morphological structure, gleying, physical and physico-chemical properties of soils, calcareous soils, soil protection.
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