GEOGRAPHY AND GENESIS OF THE BROWN-PODZOLIC SOILS (GLEYIC CAMBISOLS) OF THE BESKYDY PRECARPATHIANS.
The Precarpathians area which is located between the edge of Podillya hills and slopes of the Ukrainian Carpathians is characterized by the differences in topography, climate, biological factors of the soils formation, which led to the formation of different in genesis and morphology soils. Brown-podzolic soils within the Beskydy Precarpathians occupy 37,9 thousand hectares, 11,9 thousand hectares of which are used in agriculture. They do not form a continuous range, are spread in small amounts in the watershed areas of the 5th-6th floodplain terraces of the Dniester. The investigated soils were formed under the fir-oak forests with the large grassy cover on the diluvial loams. Soils profile is differentiated by the eluvial-iluvial type and, in general, is similar to the sod-podzolic. Iluvial horizon is dense, with prismatic structure and characteristic dark brown, ocher-brown color, which indicates the accumulation of one and a half oxides and the sludge within it. The fraction of the coarse dust is predominant in the granulometric composition and its contents gradually decrease towards the rock. The maximum concentration of the silt fraction is characteristic of the iluvial horizon. The reaction of the soil solution within the whole profile is strongly acidic, and the lowest salt pH (3.6) is characteristic of the iluvial horizon. Also the hydrolytic acidity maximum values are marked within these limits, which indicates the active processes of the internally soil transformation into the clay. The profile distribution of the movable iron and aluminum indicates its minimum in the eluvial profile part and the maximum increase in the iluvial one. The conducted analysis of the morphological characteristics and physicochemical properties indicates the dominance of the brown soil formation process in the studied soil formation. However, for a fair statement about the genetic nature of the unique brown-podzolic soils, the results of the mineralogical composition, gross chemical analysis of the silt fraction, the change factor of the silicate part and others should be used.
Keywords: the Beskydy Precarpathians, genesis, soil formation processes, morphological features, brown-podzolic soils.
- Andryushchenko, G.A. (1970), Grunty zahidnuh oblastei URSR [Soils of western region USSR], Lvov: Vilna Ukraina, 144 p.
- Grunty Ivano-Franksvskoi oblasti /Za red. G.O. Andruushchnko. – Ushgorod: Karpaty, 1969, 77
- Nazarenko, I.I., Polchuna, S.M., Smaga, I.S. (1996), Geneticheskie osobenosti buruvato-podzolistuh pochv Predkarpatya pry raznom ispolzovanii //Pochvovedenie, № 10, 1167-1175.
- Olenchuk, Ya.,Nykolyn, A. (1969),Grunty Lvivskoi oblasti [Soil of region Lviv], Lvov: Kamenyar, 84 p.
- Pankiv, Z.P. (2003), Problevy genezy dernjvo-pidzolysnyh poverhntvo-ogleenyh gruntiv pivnichno-zahidnogo Peredkarpattya /Visnyk Lvivskogo universytetu. Seriya geografichna, vypusk 29, pp. 210-213.
- Pankiv, Z.P., Poznyak, S.P. (1998), Dernjvo-pidzolysnyh poverhntvo-ogleenyh gruntiv pivnichno-zahidnogo Peredkarpattya, Lviv: Merkator, 132 p.
- Polevoyi opredelitel pochv / Pod red. N.I. Polupana i dr. – K. : Uroshayi, 1981, 320 p.
- Priroda Ukrainskoyi SSR. Pochvu /Pod red. N.B. Vernander, I.N. Gogoleva, D.I. Kovalyshyn i dr. – Kiev: Vilna Ukraina, 1986, 216 p.