Vitalii MARTYNIUK.

THE ESTIMATION OF GEOECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC LAKE-BASIN SYSTEM

The anthropogenic transformations of the Volyn Polesia lake basin systems (LBS), which are connected with reclamation, mining, agrarian nature management, hydrotechnical construction and other geoecological risks are being substantiated. The main object of geoecological studies is the basin system of Verkhnie and Nyzhnie Lakes (Volyn Polesia), which constitute a single catchment area in touch with the running regime. A brief historical review of the anthropogenic transformation of this LBS as a result of rectifying the channel of the Lion River in the 70’s of the twentieth century has been made. As a result of creation of the bypass channel, the river began to flow outside the lakes. As the materials for the research were long-term field landscape and limnological searches of the LBS of the Volyn Polesia and adjacent territories, including the basin of the Verkhnie and Nyzhnie Lakes, as well as the catenary soil profiling of the slopes of the model water catchment area. The estimation of morphological-morphometric, hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical parameters of the LBS of Verkhnie and Nyzhnie Lakes has been made. Based on morfometric and hydrological researches, the reasons for reducing the area and depth of lakes for the past 40 years have been established. The hydrochemical researches of reservoirs showed the excess of normative indicators by the ecological classification of the surface water quality, in particular mineralization, chlorides, sulfates, nitrogen-containing compounds, BSK5 and especially iron, that is common in certain observation periods. Since the hydrochemical parameters of lake water depend on season, precipitation, human activity and other factors, it has been proposed to conduct a monthly monitoring of these reservoirs. A transverse profile of the interrelation of the maximum thickness of lake sediments and the maximum water depth of Verkhnie lake, which gives an idea of the stages of development of the lake ecosystem was constructed. It has been founded that the depth of the lake basin is 19.1 m. According to the materials of the geological core of sapropel deposits at one of the points of sounding of Verkhnie lake the schedules of distribution of heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead) and radionuclides cesium-137 have been built. The digital landscape map of the LBS of Verkhnie and Nyzhnie Lakes has been presented, 10 natural complexes of the rank of the stow, including complex aqua-stows of lakes have been allocated. The structure of the land of the catchment area has been analyzed and the index of economic development of the LBS which is 32.61% has been calculated. A soil microcathene with three profiles in transellular, transacumulative and supra-qualitative facies has been constructed. One sample of sapropel deposits has been taken into the litoral aquafacies of the lake. The geoecological features of migration (lateral and radial) of chemical elements within the catchment area of researched lakes have been revealed. In connection with the significant anthropogenic transformation of the LBS and the activation of landscape-succession processes of reservoirs, the main directions of reconstruction of the natural functioning of Verkhnie and Nyzhnie lake basin have been proposed.

Key words: lake, lake-basin system, anthropogenic transformation, stow, soil microcatan, migration of chemical elements, Volyn Polesia.

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