TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION OF SKI TOURISM IN THE REGION
In the article, it has been determined that the Transcarpathian region, taking into account physical-geographical, climatic, natural-resource and socio-economic conditions, belongs to the territories favorable for the development of the tourist-recreational industry. Its mountain territories are characterized by certain restrictions, which are caused by geographical isolation, the complexity of the relief, climatic conditions, a vulnerability of ecosystems and inaccessibility, complicate the economic activity, but are used for the development of ski tourism. Of the 70 ski-and-tourism and tourism objects of the Carpathians, 40 are located in the Transcarpathian region. The total area of the mountain ranges of the region is more than 10,000 km2 and is the largest among the Carpathian regions. Ski complexes in the region differ in such indicators as capacity, the principle of placement in the landscape, the principles of urban planning and the type composition and planning structure. In height, which affects the stability of snow cover, they can be divided into three groups: 1) high-altitude – Dragobrat, Kostrino (Krasia) and Podobovets; 2) the middle mountains – Pylypets, Izki, Zhdeniyevo; 3) low-altitude – Sinyak, Shayan, Polyana. Typical areas of the Transcarpathian region that are most attractive for the development of ski tourism are Rakhiv (Dragobrat, Rakhiv, Yasinya, Leszechishna, Kobyletska Polyana, Bogdan, Chorna Tysa), Mizhgirsky (Synevirskaya Polyana, Pylypets, Izki, Mezhgorrja, Podobovets, Synevyr) Volovetsky (Zhdeniyevo, Upper Student-Beskid, Bilasovitsa), Velyky Bereznyansky (Uzhok-Volosyanka, Vishka-Krasiya, Lomshory), Svalyavsky (Solochin, Polyana), Tyachiv (Ust-Chorna, Kalina-Veliky), Perechyn (Vojvodino, Novoselytsya) , Khust (Velyatino, Shayan), Irshavsky (Axis), Mukachivsky (Syniak). Most of the skiing complexes in the region are oriented on year-round tourist services and are located along the main transport routes: the highways of international importance Kyiv-Chop, the national significance of Mukachevo-Rakhiv-Rogatin-Lviv and the railway branches of Lviv-Mukachevo, in the structure of the settlement or adjacent to it, that allows complex development and use of their infrastructure. Only some of the ski complexes, in particular, Dragobrat, are located autonomously, that is, they are exclusively oriented for the maintenance of skiers. This creates a number of problems, including the delivery of tourists to the place of skiing. Each of the skiing tourist centers of the Transcarpathian region is characterized by the peculiarities of the infrastructure. One of the important indicators for the development of ski resorts and resorts is the level of transport. It describes the possibilities of using rail or motor transport, transfers to the resort and the possibility of a passenger’s entrance directly to the ski lifts, the presence of a parking lot near the ski lifts with plenty of parking places for motor vehicles. The organization of mass recreation of skiers, while providing the necessary comfort, contributes to the formation of modern ski centers, which include hotel complexes, a system of rope-chair and ski-lifts roads, slopes of various lengths and complexity, educational slopes, services of arrangement and preparation of trails and control and rescue services, sports organizations and buildings, shops, rental equipment for sporting equipment, “ski schools”. At the decision of users to visit this or that resort affects the state of the tracks. Therefore, an important element of the infrastructure of ski resorts, on which the possibility of using slopes for skiing depends on the state of the ski slopes, the technical condition of equipment (lifts and cable carriageways), artificial snow slopes, their illumination, etc. The condition of snow cover of ski slopes is determined both by weather conditions and the possibility of using artificial snow-plowing installations – “snow cannons”, which give the opportunity to start earlier and then finish the ski season. The development of skiing in the region is not possible without proper investment support. In particular, investment projects for infrastructure development of skiing complexes in the most popular territories of the region have been developed: p. Synyak, p. Yasinya – Polonina Dragobrat, p. Kvasy – Blyznica, Poloniny Runi, ski resorts Borzhavsky Polonin, resort Petros. The project of development of the resort “Svydovets”, which will be a continuation of the ski resort “Bukovel”, may become a grand project of the development of mountain-skiing tourism in the region. The logistics of the future resort should provide a 25 km long forest road. The project envisages the construction of 60 hotel complexes of different types, 33 pendant ropeways, the arrangement of 230 km of ski trails, 120 catering establishments, shops, fitness centers, medical institutions, bank branches, multi-level parking lots, the construction of a private aerodrome with a runway length of 1000 m is planned for landing small planes. The infrastructure of the ski resort will be able to simultaneously accommodate 28 thousand visitors, whose service will involve 5 thousand staff. However, the main problem that slows down the implementation of investment projects for the development of the infrastructure of skiing, sporting and tourism establishments in the region is the complex procedure of allocation of land for the construction of recreational facilities, as most of them belong to the lands of the forest fund, which inhibits the attraction of foreign ones, and domestic investments in the tourism industry of the Transcarpathian region, the development of tourism and sports infrastructure. The solution of this issue is possible by introducing appropriate amendments to the sub-legal normative legal acts of Ukraine.
Key words: skiing tourism, skiing resort, skiing region, skiing infrastructure, skiing complexes.
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