The article deals with the history of the settlement of the canyon valley of the Dniester River. The most intensive settlement occurred in the late Paleolithic. Changes in the landscapes that arose in the formation of settlements were associated with the use of natural caves as dwellings, the transformation of vegetation and fauna through intensive harvesting and hunting, the use of gypsum, limestone. Highlight changes in landscapes that occur under the influence of human activity. The change of relief, degradation of soils and vegetation, erosion processes, etc., is manifested in settlements. Many of the halls remain after flint mining in the canyon valley of the Dniester. Surface waters also changed under the influence of human activity within the settlements. Most of the settlements, mostly rural, were formed in the era of feudalism (XIV-XVIII). Significant changes occurred in the nature of the investigated territory. The transformation of landscapes reaches the maximum degree precisely in settlements. Rural peasant landscapes predominate throughout the canyon valley of the Dniester. They are characterized by a lower degree of anthropogenic transformation than in urban landscapes. The degree of restitution of the Dniester canyon as a whole and physical and geographical regions is analyzed. The average size of the degree of resilience is 15.6%. Areas with the largest and smallest settlement load are revealed. The valley types of settlements located along the main river channels and having the maximum density of the building create the greatest load on the landscapes. The value of the surface and ground components of the drain is changing due to the high density of the building. This causes the flow of domestic and household sewage into the river runoff, changes the velocity of drainage of rain and thawed waters, activates adverse erosion processes, causes degradation of soils and vegetation, and relief. Therefore, in calculating the scale of anthropogenic transformation of the canyon valley of the Dniester, it is important to take into account the settlement burden.

Key words: residential landscapes, settlement load, relief, vegetation, canyon, valley of Dniester


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